Friday, November 9, 2018

Diwali/Deepavali Significance

Diwali / Dipavali

The First Day of Diwali

The first day of Diwali is Dhanvantari Trayodasi, when Lord Dhanvantari appeared, delivering Ayurvedic medicine for mankind. This day marks the beginning of Diwali celebrations. At sunset, devout Hindus bathe and offer oil lamps along with prasada (sanctified food) to Yamaraja, the Lord of Death, and pray for protection from untimely death.

The Second Day of Diwali

The second day of Diwali is Naraka Chaturdasi. On this day Lord Krishna killed the demon Narakasura and liberated the 16,000 princesses the demon held captive.

The Third Day - Actual Diwali

This is the actual day of Diwali, commonly known as the Hindu New Year in Hindi speaking states. The faithful cleanse themselves and join with their families and priests to worship the goddess Lakshmi, consort of Lord Vishnu, to receive blessings of wealth, prosperity, triumph of good over evil, light over darkness. This is also the day Lord Rama returned to Ayodhya, having successfully rescued Sita and defeated the demon Ravana.

The Fourth Day of Diwali

On this day, Govardhana Puja is performed, a spiritual harvest festival. Thousands of years ago, Lord Krishna caused the people of Vrindavan to perform Govardhana Puja.

Bali Maharaja was defeated on this day by Lord Krishna's dwarf brahmana incarnation, Vamanadeva.

It is written in the Ramayana that when the bridge to Lanka was being built by the Vanara army, Hanuman (a divine loyal servant of Lord Rama possessing enormous strength) was bringing a mountain as material to help with the construction of the bridge. When a call was given that enough materials had already been obtained, Hanuman placed the mountain down before reaching the construction site. Due to lack of time, he did not return the mountain to its original place.

The deity presiding over this mountain spoke to Hanuman asking of his reason for leaving the mountain there. Hanuman replied that the mountain should remain there until the age of Dvapara when Lord Rama incarnates as Lord Krishna, who will shower His grace on the mountain, and will instruct that the mountain be worshiped not only in that age but but in ages to come. This deity whom Hanuman spoke to was Govardhana (an incarnation of Lord Krishna), who manifested Himself in the form of the mountain. To fulfill Hanuman's decree, Govardhan Puja was performed and the celebration is continued to this day.

The Fifth Day of Diwali

The fifth day of the Diwali is called Bhratri Dooj, dedicated to sisters. We have heard about Raksha Bandhan, brothers day. Well this is sisters day. Many moons ago in the Vedic era, Yamaraja, the Lord of Death, visited His sister Yamuna on this day. He gave Yamuna a boon that whoever visits her on this day shall be liberated from all sins; they will achieve moksha, liberation. From then on, brothers visit their sisters on this day to inquire about their welfare, and many faithful bathe in the holy waters of the Yamuna River.

This day is also known as Bhai Fota among Bengalis, when the sister prays for her brother's safety, success and well being.

This day marks the end of the five days of Diwali celebrations.

The Origin of Diwali

According to the epic Ramayana, Diwali commemorates the return of Lord Rama, an incarnation of Krishna as the noble king, from his 14-year exile after rescuing Sita and killing the demon Ravana. The people of Ayodhya illuminated the kingdom with earthen diyas (oil lamps) and fireworks to celebrate the return of their king.

In rural areas of India, Diwali, which occurs at the end of a growing season, is a harvest festival. Harvests normally brought prosperity. After reaping their harvest, farmers celebrated with joy and gave thanks to God and the demigods for granting them a good crop.

At the time of the reign of Emperor Prithu, for example, there was a worldwide famine. He ordered that all cultivatable lands be ploughed. When the rains came, the land became very fertile and grains were planted. The harvest provided food not only to feed all of India, but for all civilization at the time. This harvest was close to Diwali time and was a good reason to celebrate Diwali with great joy and merriment by a wider community.

In the Adi Parva of the Mahabarata, the Pandavas also returned from their exile in the forest during Diwali time, giving people another reason for celebration.

Tuesday, October 30, 2018

Vittal Birdev Annual Yatra at PATTANKODOLI: 

Vittal Birdev Annual Yatra at PATTANKODOLI: 
Shri Vittal Birdev Annual Yatra is observed at Pattan Kodoli village in Hatkangale Taluka near Kolhapur. It is the birth anniversary or Janmotsav festival of Vitthal Birdev Maharaj, who is a reincarnation of Lord Vishnu. The annual fair and festival attracts thousands of devotees to Pattan Kodoli village. Birdev is the family deity of the Shepherd community Dhangar from Maharashtra, Karnataka, Goa and Andhra Pradesh. The most important ceremony of this fare is the predictions by Shree Kheloba Rajabhau Waghmode, from Anjungau, a village in Solhapur District. The festive mood remains completely in groove with people throwing Haldi, i.e., turmeric powder over him while sitting under a Banyan tree and seeking his blessings. Sri Keloba Rajabau Waghmode, known as the ‘Baba’ of the devotees, walks 17 days from his village to reach Pattan Kodoli for the festival every year. He is considered as the messenger of god. Huge umbrellas are brought in to welcome the Baba to the temple, accompanied with a procession with drums and traditional music. As soon as he enters the temple, Baba attains a trance mode that makes him jump and dance that lasts for nearly 10 minutes. The Baba then goes ahead to foretell his predictions about farming, rain and future conditions in Kannada, his trance language, which is translated by the priest. He starts his journey back after the rituals gets over.

Such intense traditions and unbelievable rituals of India and its such vibrant culture has always been a wonder for a traveller from worldwide. This festival still has the strongest promise to fulfil a travel photographer’s dream for being it a relatively lesser known and less popular around the world.

Kolhapur Kushti Aakhara : Kushti, the traditional mud wrestling is the ancient sport in India and oldest in the world. Motibag aakhara of Kolhapur is one of the oldest aakhara in India. kushti takes place in a clay or dirt pit. The soil is mixed with ghee and other ingredients and is tended to before each practice. Wrestlers of aakhara live and train together and follow strict rules and a restricted life style. Soft drugs such as alcohol, (chewing) tabacco or even coffee and tea are not allowed. Wrestler lives off a high-energy diet that is supposed to build up body mass. The training schedule of a Kushti wrestler starts at around 4 or 5 am with exercises and practice matches. After lunch, wrestlers must sleep until the next training session of the day which starts around 4 pm and may last around two hours. During training sessions, wrestlers work themselves to near exhaustion. All these activities create amply opportunities of photography.

Friday, October 12, 2018

Dasara Gombe

Dasara Dolls – Significance and History

Navaratri is a major festival of the Hindus that is celebrated in various styles all over the country every year. Different states of the country have different names and customs for celebrating this festival. In the southern part of India, the festival of Navaratri is celebrated with a very interesting and unique tradition called Bombe Habba or Golu or Kolu (Kannada) or Bommala Koluvu (Telugu) or Bommai Kolu (Tamil) or simply Dasara dolls. This tradition involves a toy festival that is celebrated by families across Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

The festival is celebrated for 10 days and culminates on the day of Vijayadashami or Dasara, the day when Goddess Durga won the battle against the demons or asuras after fighting for 9 days. In Karnataka the festival is also known as Dasara Doll Festival.

The Dasara Doll Festival of Karnataka
The Dasara doll festival is celebrated in Karnataka through an exhibition of various dolls and figurines arranged as per custom. The dolls are arranged and exhibited on a stepped platform having an odd number of steps or tiers (usually 7, 9 or 11) and usually covered with a white or light color cloth. Many households use nine steps for the exhibition of dolls to signify the nine nights of Navaratri. The dolls are ritually worshipped during the celebrations.

The main dolls of the festival are a pair depicting a husband and a wife. They are referred to as Pattada Gombe or Pattath bommaikal. This set of main dolls is handed over to a daughter by her parents during her marriage ceremony. They are presented to the new bride to start her own family and continue with the tradition of the festival.

The Pattada Gombe pair is a set of traditional dolls made from wood. These dolls are dressed colorfully using papers or silk textiles. This main pair of dolls is always dressed in the traditional style. Tradition demands that the first step of the platform be usually reserved for miniature idols or dolls depicting gods and goddesses. Generally the idols of Rama, Lakshmana, Seeta, Krishna, Radha, Shiva, Vishnu, Durga, Lakshmi, Saraswati, etc. are used in this festival. It is also customary to have a few wooden dolls in the collection.

Dasara Dolls
A gollu gods and goddesses dolls decoration. Image courtesy VPradeep Banavara

Dasara Doll Steps -The Arrangement of Dolls on the Tiers
Every home selects an auspicious time to begin the doll festival. The dolls are arranged as per a specific order on the tiers or steps. The hierarchy starts from the Gods being placed at the top tiers and ends with mortals of earth placed at the lower tiers of the platform.

Steps 1 to 3: The first three steps are dedicated to figurines or idols of Gods and Goddesses. Different idols of various gods and goddesses are placed on these steps.

Steps 4 to 6: The next three steps are used to arrange dolls depicting demi-gods, great saints or kings and queens. Due importance is given to the Mysore kings during this festival and their miniature forms are generally seen placed on these steps.

Step 7: This step is devoted to showcasing of Hindu festivals, celebrations and occasions.

Step 8: This step is decorated with scenes from everyday life, such as a park, a shop, a vegetable vendor, etc.

Step 9: The last step usually depicts the evolution of mankind or living things.

There is no hard and fast rule to arrange the dolls. Every household generally increases or decreases the number of stairs according to the rows or tiers needed for displaying the various dolls available to them

Wednesday, October 10, 2018

Prostitution in India

Places in India where prostitution is the main source of income

ltahough India is one of the fastest growing developing country today, but still, there are some dark corners in this country, that are lagging behind, with the present time.

They are alienated from the modern world and the lack of education is one of the prime reason for that.

It is hard to believe, that in the present scenario, India habituates some places where girls of the families are forced into prostitution, even before they reach puberty.

Prostitution is a profession that has been into existence since ages. If we turn the pages of history, then, it will become evident that many courtesans used to be the muses of the erstwhile kings.

But, with the passage of time, this profession has undergone a lot of transformation. In some parts of India, prostitution is still considered as a main source of family income, in the guise of superstitious social traditions.

Most of the women, who chose this profession, willingly or forcibly, either hail from poor economic and financial background or they are dragged into this profession due to age-old traditions, to support the livelihood.

Let's take a look at four places in India, where this dark profession is practiced as an open secret, and families feel no shame in telling that their daughters, sisters are into this profession.

Natpurwa village, Uttar Pradesh

This is the village in Hardoi district of eastern Uttar Pradesh, 70 kms from Lucknow, where Nat caste dominates. Strangely, in this village, children are not aware about the name of their fathers and they live with their mothers. They have no surnames.

Shockingly, this bizarre norm exists since last 400 years. Around 5,000 people live in this village. More than 70 percent women of this village are into flesh trade.

Over the years, women from this village have migrated to cities like Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata and some have even shifted to Dubai.

Bachara tribe, Madhya Pradesh

Bachara is a tribal matriarchal community in the western part of Madhya Pradesh and women here are said to be the descendants of royal courtesans.

Here, girls are forced into prostitution by their own fathers and brothers. The responsibility of making both ends meet is in the hands of the eldest daughter of the family. Most of such families have a dedicated room in their houses to continue this dreaded profession.

Wdia village, Gujarat

Known as "village of sex workers," Wadia village in in Tharad taluka in Banaskantha district of north Gujarat, close to Rajasthan border, is famous for flesh trade on an enormous scale, since over last 80 years. Here, men search for customers for the women of their families and also negotiate the rates between Rs 500 to Rs 10,000.

The small village is inhabited by a nomadic tribe called Saraniyas, where girls are groomed to become prostitutes at an early age and boys are trained to become pimps to find clients for them.

However, nearby villages are against this tradition. Several education drives could not change the mindset of these people.

Devadasis in Karnataka

In the Devadasis belt, in Bellary and Koppal districts of Karnataka, the virginity of girls is auctioned off among the upper caste people. After this, girls spend rest of their lives as prostitutes, while earning for their families.

The Devadasis community worships Hindu Goddess Yelamma. Devadasis literally means 'slave of God'.

According to the beliefs followed here, girls are married to the Goddess Yelamma, after which they dedicate their lives in the name of religion.

Besides Karnataka, the Devadasi system continues in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. IN 1982, devadasi system was outlawed, but it is still widely practiced.

Ohert pomrinent areas, where prostitution is a widely accepted profession are: Sonagachi, red light area in Kolkata, Kamathipura in Mumbai, Budhwar Peth in Pune, Itwari in Nagpur, Ganga Jamuna in Nagpur, Meergunj in Allahabad, Shivdaspur in Varanasi, Chaturbhujsthan in Muzaffarpur and GB Road in Delhi.


Vijaya Dashmi(Vijaya means victory and Dashmi means tenth day). It is celebrated in all over India.

Vijayadashami is celebrated not only in India, but also celebrated in many other countries like Nepal, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, China, Thailand, and Mauritius. Dussehra is symbolized as the victory of good over evil and teaches us, bad things never survive for a long time. Let’s discuss the celebration  in different states of India.

Dusshera in North India

In north India, people perform Pooja in the morning and girls do tika on their brother’s forehead and pray for their long life. They prepare the variety of sweets. In evening there will be fair in every colony which followed by performing a drama of Lord Rama and Demon Ravana and then Lord Rama Kills Ravana and fires Ravana effigies. Children enjoy this whole movement and learn a lesson of victory of good on devilish. as it is believed that lord Rama kills demon Ravana on this day. The word Dussehra is derived from Sanskrit word Dasha Hara, means destroyer of the ten headed evil Ravana.

Dussehra of Kullu in Himachal Pradesh:

Dussehra is significant as a festival in Kullu. It is a cultural and traditional festival in state Kullu. Every year Dussehra is celebrated in Dhalpur maidan in the Kullu valley. History of Kullu says that back to the 17th century local King “Jagat Singh” installed a statue of Lord Raghunath on his throne as a mark of penance and then God Raghunath was declared as the ruling deity of the Valley.

Navratri of Gujarat with Gurba

In Gujarat, Dussehra is celebrated with a folk dance of Gujarat (Gurba), played during the nine days of Navratra. Garba dance is the main attraction of the festival as people gather over there from every state to join the dance on the folk songs.

Durga puja of Bengal, Orissa, Assam, Bihar and Jharkhand.

Dussehra is celebrated as Durga Puja in bengal, orissa and Assam as devotees believe that Goddess Durga kills evil demon Mahishasur on this day. The statue of Maa Durga is made and established beautifully in Pandals in Navratri in these areas. Durga pooja is performed from Sashti and followed by Saptami, Ashtami, Navami and a great Pooja held on the tenth day on Dussehra.  Women offer Sindoor on the forehead and on each other of the goddess Durga.

Dasara of Mysore - Karnataka

Dussehra celebrated in Mysore is a representative of great harmony between historical and religious culture and very much popular around the world. The entire city is decorated with flowers, Diya, and bulbs lightening. The city is illuminated for a whole month during the festival season of Dussehra and Diwali. Elephants are leading a colorful procession through the vibrantly decorated streets of the city. The Mysore celebrations also strongly emphasize goddess Durga legend.


Bathukamma is floral festival celebrated predominantly by the Hindu women of Telangana. Every year this festival is celebrated as per Shalivahana calendar for nine days starting Bhadrapada Amavasya (also known as Mahalaya Amavasya or Pitru Amavasya) till Durgashtami, usually in September–October of Gregorian calendar. Bathukamma is celebrated for nine days during Durga Navratri. It starts on the day of Mahalaya Amavasya and the 9-day festivities will culminate on "Saddula Bathukamma" or "Pedda Bathukamma" festival on Ashwayuja Ashtami, popularly known as Durgashtami which is two days before Dussehra. Bathukamma is followed by Boddemma, which is a 7-day festival. Boddemma festival that marks the ending of Varsha Ruthu whereas Bathukamma festival indicates the beginning of Sarad or Sharath Ruthu.
Bathukamma represents cultural spirit of Telangana. Bathukamma is a beautiful flower stack, arranged with different unique seasonal flowers most of them with medicinal values, in seven concentric layers in the shape of temple gopuram. In Telugu, ‘Bathukamma' means ‘Mother Goddess come Alive’ and Goddess Maha Gauri-‘Life Giver’ is worshipped in the form of Bathukamma – the patron goddess of womanhood, Maha Gauri Devi.
It is the festival for feminine felicitation. On this special occasion women dress up in the traditional sari combining it with jewels and other accessories. Teenage Girls wear Langa-Oni/Half-Sarees/Lehenga Choli combining it with jewels in order to bring out the traditional grace of the attire. The 2017 dates are September 20–28.[5] Day1- Engili pula Bhathukamma Day2-Atukula Bhathukamma Day3-Muddappappu Bhathukamma Day4-Nanbiyyam Bhathukamma Day5-Atla Bhathukamma Day6-Aligina Bhathukamma (alaka Bhathukamma) Day7-Vepakayala Bhathukamma Day8-Venna muddala Bhathukamma Day9-Saddula Bhathukamma brothers bring flowers to mom and sisters.

Wednesday, August 1, 2018

Surnames of Bunts Community

Bunt community Surnames

 1. Adappa
2. Adasu
3. Adyanthaaya
4. Ajila
5. Ajiri
6. Alva
7. Arasa
8. Ariga
9. Athaara
10. Athikaari
11. Athre
12. Baari
13. Baithan
14. Ballal
15. Banga
16. Bhandaari
17. Bhoja
18. Binnage
19. Braana
20. Budaale
21. Bunnaala
22. Bunta
23. Chowta
24. Dore
25. Ghambheera
26. Hegde
27. Horuva
28. Kaajava
29. Kaava
30. Kadamba
31. Kakva
32. Kambli
33. Kaantheeva
34. Kariyaal
35. Kayya
36. Kille
37. Konde
38. Kottaari
39. Kudre
40. Kundade
41. Kundaheggde
42. Maada
43. Maana
44. Maanaayi
45. Maardi
46. Maarla
47. Maarala
48. Maddala
49. Mallaala
50. Malli
51. Marthe
52. Melaanta
53. Menava
54. Menda
55. Mudhya
56. Mukkaala
58. Muraya
59. Naadava
60. Naanaya
61. Naik
62. Naayara
63. Nonda
64. Paala
65. Paandi
66. Padyaar
67. Pakkala
68. Palaayi
69. Patlashetty
70. Payyaade
71. Pegde
72. Pergade
73. Poonja
74. Poovani
75. Raaja
76. Rai
77. Samaani
78. Saamantha
79. Saantha
80. Sankaya
81. Semitha
82. Servegaara
83. Sheba
84. Shekha
85. Shenava
86. Shettivaali
87. Shetty
88. Sooda
89. Sorapa
90. Sulaaya
91. Tholaara
92. Vaala
93. Varma

Friday, July 6, 2018

Relationship words in Indian Languages

Marathi words for the relationships:

Mother - Aai
Father - Baba
Sister - Bahin
Elder Sister - Taai
Younger sister - Lahan Bahin
Brother - Bhaoo
Elder brother - Dada
Younger brother - Lahan Bhaoo
Son - Mulaga
Daughter - Mulagi
Son-in-law - Jawai
Daughter -in -law - Sun
Brother-in law (elder) Saala
Brother-in-law (younger) Saala
Sister-in-law (elder) - Akkad Sasu
Sister-in-law (younger)- Saali
Uncle (mother's brother) - Mama
Uncle (father's elder brother ) - Kaka
Uncle (father's younger brother) - Kaka
Father-in-law - Sasare
Mother-in-law - Sasu
Aunt( Mothers elder sister) - Mawashi
Aunt(Mother's youger sister) - Mawashi
Aunt( Father's sister) - Atya
Cousin - chulat bhau/bahin
Nephew - Putanya
Niece - Putani
Grandfather - Ajoba
Grandmother - Aji
Grand son - Natu
Grand daughter - Naat
Great grand father - Panajoba
Great grand mother - Panaji
Great grand son - Natu
Great grand daughter - Naat
Wife - Bayako
Husband - Nawara
Friend - (male)Mitra
Friend(female) Maitrin
Lover(boy) - Priyakar
Lover(girl)- Preyasi

Telugu words for the relationship  :

Mother - Amma
Father - Nanna
Sister - Sodari
Elder Sister - Akka
Younger sister – Chellelu/Chelli
Brother - Sodarudu
Elder brother - Anna
Younger brother - Thammudu
Son – Koduku/ Kumaarudu
Daughter - Kuturu
Son-in-law - Alludu
Daughter -in -law – Kodalu
Brother-in law (elder) – Bhavagaaru (Husband's brother) and Annayyagaaru(Husband's sister's Husband)
Brother-in-law (younger) – Maridi (Husband's brother)/ Bavamaridi (Wife's brother)
Sister-in-law (elder) - Vadina
Sister-in-law (younger)- Maradalu
Uncle (mother's brother) – Maama/ Mamayya
Uncle (father's elder brother ) – Chinnanna/ Babai
Uncle (father's younger brother) - Peddhananna
Father-in-law –Mamayya
Mother-in-law – Attha/ Atthayya (Husband's Mother/ Wife's Mother)
Aunt( Mothers elder sister) -Peddamma
Aunt(Mother's youger sister) – Pinni/ Chinnamma
Aunt( Father's sister) – Menattha
Cousin – Akka (If elder)/ Chelli (If younger)
Nephew – Koduku (If he is Brother's son)/ Menalludu (If he is Sister's Son)
Niece – Kuturu (If she is brother's daughter)/ Menakodalu(If she is Sister's daughter)
Grandfather - Thatha/ Thathayya
Grandmother – Ammamma (Mother's Mother) / Nayanamma (Father's Mother)
Grand son - Manavadu
Grand daughter - Manavaraalu
Great grand father - Mutthatha
Great grand mother - Bhamma
Great grand son – Mudhi manavadu
Great grand daughter – Mudhi manavaraalu
Wife - Bharya
Husband – Bhartha/ Penimiti
Friend - (male) Senhitudu/ Mithrudu
Friend(female) Snehituraalu/ Mitruraalu
Lover(boy) -Premikudu
Lover(girl)- Preyasi

Kannada Words for the relationship :

Mother - Amma
Father - appa
Sister - Sodari/sahodari
Elder Sister - Akka
Younger sister – tangi
Brother - sodara/sahodara
Elder brother - Anna
Younger brother - Tamma
Son – maga
Daughter - magalu
Son-in-law - Aliya
Daughter -in -law – sose
Brother-in law (elder) – Bhava (Husband's brother) akka husband's elder brothers wife
Brother-in-law (younger) – Maiduna (Husband's brother) tangi (wife)
Sister-in-law (elder) - attige (wife's sister)
Sister-in-law (younger)- nadini
Uncle (mother's brother) – sodara Maava
Uncle (father's elder brother ) – doddappa
Uncle (father's younger brother) - chikkappa
Father-in-law –maava
Mother-in-law – Atte
Aunt( Mothers elder sister) - daddamma
Aunt(Mother's youger sister) – chikkamma
Aunt( Father's sister) – sodara atte
Nephew – sodara aliya
Niece – sodara sose
Grandfather - ajja
Grandmother - ajji
Grand son - Mommaga
Grand daughter - Mommagalu
Great grand father - Muttajja
Great grand mother - muttajji
Great grand son – mari mommaga
Great grand daughter – Mari mommagalu
Wife - hendati
Husband – ganda
Friend - (male) geleya
Friend(female) gelathi
Lover(boy) -Priyakara
Lover(girl)- Preyasi

Tamil words for the relationship:

Mother - Amma
Father - Appa
Sister - Sagothari
Elder Sister - Akka
Younger sister - Thangai
Brother - Sagotharan
Elder brother - Annan
Younger brother - Thambi
Son - Magan
Daughter - Magal
Son-in-law - Maru magan
Daughter -in -law - Maru magal
Brother-in law (elder) Athan
Brother-in-law (younger) Maithunan/ Kolunthan
Sister-in-law (elder) - Mathini/Anni
Sister-in-law (younger)- Kolunthi/sammanthi
Uncle (mother's brother) - Maama
Uncle (father's elder brother ) - Periappa
Uncle (father's younger brother) - Chithappa
Father-in-law - Maama
Mother-in-law - Athai
Aunt( Mothers elder sister) - Periamma
Aunt(Mother's youger sister) - Chithi
Aunt( Father's sister) - Athai
Cousin - Sagotharan/sagothari as applicable
Nephew - Marumagan
Niece - Marumagal
Grandfather - Thatha
Grandmother - Paatti or Aachi
Grand son - Peran
Grand daughter - Pethi
Great grand father - Poottan
Great grand mother - Pootti
Great grand son - Kollu peran
Great grand daughter - Kollu pethi
Wife - Manaivi/Thunaivi/Pendaatti
Husband - Kanavan/Thunaivan/Purushan
Friend - (male)Nanban/Thozhan
Friend(female) Nanbi/Thozhi
Lover(boy) - Kaathalan
Lover(girl)- Kaatha

PUNJABI words for therelationship:

Mother - mummy ji
Father - papa ji , dady JI
Sister - bhen
Elder Sister - didi
Younger sister - choti bhen
Brother - veer
Elder brother - veer ji
Younger brother - kaka
Son - puttar
Daughter - dhee
Son-in-law - Jawayi
Daughter -in -law - Noo
Brother-in law - sala
Brother-in-law (younger)-sala
Sister-in-law (elder) - Sali ji
Sister-in-law (younger)- Sali
Uncle (mother's brother) - Mama ji
Uncle (father's elder brother ) - Taya ji
Uncle (father's younger brother) - Chacha ji
Father-in-law - Sora
Mother-in-law - Sas
Aunt( Mothers elder sister) - Masi ji
Aunt(Mother's youger sister) - Masi ji
Aunt( Father's sister) -Bhua ji
Cousin - veer,
Nephew - pateja
Niece - Patiji
Grandfather - Dada ji
Grandmother - Dadi ji
Grand son - Poota
Grand daughter - Pooti
Great grand father -vada dada ji
Great grand mother -vada daddi ji
Great grand son - poota
Great grand daughter -pooti
Wife - Gharwali
Husband - Gharwala
Friend - mitar, dost
Lover(boy) - aashiq

Gujarati words for the relationships :

Mother - Ba

Father - Bapuji

Sister - Ben

Elder Sister - Didi/Moti Ben

Younger sister - Nani Ben

Brother - Bhai

Elder brother - Mota Bhai

Younger brother - Nano Bhai

Son - Dikro

Daughter - Dikri

Son-in-law - Jamai

Daughter -in -law - Vahu

Brother-in law
(wife's  brother) Saala
(Husband's elder brother) Jeth
(husband's younger brother) Der
(Wife's sister's husband) - Sadhu Bhai
(Husband's sister's husband ) - Banevi

(Wife's elder sister) - Patla Sasu
(Wife's younger sister)- Saali
(Husband's sister) - Nanand
(Brother's wife) - Bhabhi
(Husband's elder brother's wife) - Jethani
(Husband's younger brother's wife ) - Derani

(mother's brother) - Mama
(father's elder brother ) - Ada/Mota bapuji
(father's younger brother) - Kaka
(Father's sister's husband) - Fuva
(Mother's sister's husband) - Masa

Father-in-law - Sasara

Mother-in-law - Sasu

( Mothers elder sister) - Masi
(Mother's younger sister) - Masi
( Father's sister) - Fai/Faiba/Fiya/Foi
(Father's younger brother's wife) - Kaki
(Father's elder brother's wife) - Bhabhu/Moti Ba
(Mother's brother's wife) - Mami

Cousin - Pitrai Bhai/ Pitrai Bahen

(Brother's son) Bhatrijo
(Sister's son) Bhanej

(Brother's daughter) Bhatriji
(Sister's daughter) - Bhanej


(Peternal) Dadima
(Maternal) Nanima

Grand son - pautra

Grand daughter - pautri

Great grand father
(Maternal) Par Nana
(Peternal) Par Dada

Great grand mother
(Peternal)-  Pardadi
(Maternal) - Parnani

Great grand son - par-pautra

Great grand daughter - par-pautri

Wife - patni/gharvali

Husband - pati/gharvala

(male) bhaibandh/dostar
(female) sakhi/benpani

(boy) - Premi
(girl)- Priyatama

The Bengali words for the relationships

Mother - Mamoni /Ma
Father - Baba
Sister - Bonn
Elder Sister - Didibhai
Younger sister - chotobonn
Brother - Bhai
Elder brother - Dadabhai
Younger brother - chotobhai
Son - Chele
Daughter - Mey
Son-in-law - Jaamai Babu
Daughter -in -law - Bou
Brother-in law (elder) - Boro Shala
Brother-in-law (younger) - Choto Shala /Thakurpo
Sister-in-law (elder) - boro Nonood
Sister-in-law (younger)-choto Nonood/Thakurji
Uncle (mother's brother) - Mama
Uncle (father's elder brother ) - JyathaMoshai
Uncle (father's younger brother) - Kakababu
Father-in-law - Shoshur Moshai
Mother-in-law - Shashuri
Aunt( Mothers elder sister) - BoroMashi
Aunt(Mother's youger sister) - ChotoMashi
Aunt( Father's sister) - Pisi
Nephew - Bhaipo / Bonpo
Niece - Bhaiji/Bonji
Grandfather - Thakur Da
Grandmother - ThakuMa
Grand son - Dadubhai/ Naati
Grand daughter - DidiBhai/Naatni
Great grand mother -
Great grand son -
Great grand daughter -
Wife - Bou / Stri
Husband - bor/ shaami
Friend - (male)Bondhu
Friend(female) Baandhobi
Lover(boy) - Premik
Lover(girl)- Premika

The Malayalam words for these relations are:

Mother - Amma
Father - Achan
Sister - Sahothari
Elder Sister - Chechi
Younger sister - Aniyathi
Brother - Sahotharan
Elder brother - Chettan
Younger brother - Aniyan
Son - Magan/Putran
Daughter - Magal/Putri
Son-in-law - Maru magan
Daughter -in -law - Maru magal
Brother-in law (elder/younger) - Aliyan
Sister-in-law (elder) - Chettathi
Sister-in-law (younger)- Will call her name
Uncle (mother's brother) - Maaman
Uncle (father's elder brother ) - Valiyachan
Uncle (father's younger brother) - Chithappan/Kochachan/Ilayachan 
Father-in-law - Ammavan/Achan
Mother-in-law - Ammavi/Amma
Aunt( Mothers elder sister) - Valiyamma
Aunt(Mother's youger sister) - Kunjamma/Menma/Ilayamma
Aunt( Father's sister) - Appachi/Ammayi
Cousin - Sagotharan/sagothari as applicable
Nephew - Marumagan
Niece - Marumagal
Grandfather - Appuppan/Achachan
Grandmother - Ammumma/Achamma
Grand son - Cherumakan
Grand daughter - Cherumakal
Great grand father - Muthazhan
Great grand mother - Muthazhi
Wife - Bharya/Sahadharmini
Husband - Bharthavu
Friend - (male)Koottukaran/Thozhan
Friend(female) Koottukari/Thozhi
Lover(boy) - Kamukan
Lover(girl)- Kamuki/Pranayini

Odia words for the relationships

Mother - Maa/Maatha
Father - Pita
Sister - Bhowni
Elder Sister - Nanni
Younger sister - Thangai
Brother - Sagotharan
Elder brother - Bahyina
Younger brother - Bhayi
Son - Puo
Daughter - Jheeo
Son-in-law - Joyi
Daughter -in -law - Bowu
Brother-in law (elder) - Binoi 
Brother-in-law (younger)- Didhiro 
Co-brother -Shodu
Uncle (mother's brother) - Mammu
Uncle (father's elder brother ) - Bode bappa
Uncle (father's younger brother) - Doda

The Assamese words for the relationships

Mother - Ai, Ma
Father - Deuta, Bap
Elder Sister - Ba/Bai
Younger sister - Bhoni/Bhonti
Elder brother - Dada, Kokai
Younger brother - Bhai/Bhaiti
Son - Put, Lóra
Daughter - Zi, Süali
Son-in-law - Züai
Daughter -in -law - Büari
Brother-in law (elder) - Zetheri
Brother-in-law (younger) - Khulxali
Sister-in-law (elder) - Bai xahu
Sister-in-law (younger) - Nonod
Uncle (mother's brother) - Mama/Mümai
Uncle (father's elder brother ) - Bordeutia, Zetha
Uncle (father's younger brother) - Khura
Father-in-law - Xohur
Mother-in-law - Xahu
Aunt (Mothers elder sister) - Mahi, Dangor mahi
Aunt(Mother's youger sister) - Mahi, Xoru mahi
Aunt(Father's elder sister) - Zethai
Aunt(Father's younger sister) - Pehi
Nephew - Bhagin, Bhotiza
Niece - Bhotizi, Bhagini, Bhotiza-süali
Grandfather - Koka
Grandmother - Aita
Grand son - Nati
Grand daughter - Natini
Great grand father - Azü koka
Great grand mother - Azü aita
Great grand son - Azü nati
Great grand daughter - Azü natini
Wife - Ghoini
Husband - Giri, Poi
Friend (male) - Bondhu, Bandhoi, Düs
Friend(female) - Bandhowi
Lover (boy) - Bhalpüa lóra
Lover (girl) - Bhalpüa süali